problem for societies experiencing rapid urbanization. It is doubtful that any country (possibly a Scandinavian one might be an exception) has been able to provide "satisfactory" housing, be it England in the 19th century, the United States at the turn of the century, or the Soviet Union following the Revolution. Some of the standards that are used in making the calculation of urban services have been unthinkingly imported from the developed countries of today. In Latin America, at least, there now seems to be a better appreciation of both the desire and ability of squatters and low income groups to improve their housing substantially through self-help measures.
Surely one reason why more attention seems to be drawn to the ills of the city is that they are much more visible and concentrated than they are in the country. Since they are linked to the amount of documentation or observation, reports of worse conditions in the cities are, in most cases, statistical artifacts.
For example, in developing countries, nearly all cities have a mass of unemployed and underemployed workers, but underutilization of manpower is a characteristic of both urban and rural sectors. Education and health services are often more available in urban areas.
Urbanization does have its own set of "costs," and the form that the urbanization pattern takes may not be well suited to the requirements of a country. However, major policy issues would still arise if urbanization were to be perfectly "proportioned" relative to economic development. Criticism of the degree of urbanization and the speed of the process is often misdirected; policy changes should be directed to the systems of cities within a region—the problems rooted in the urban size hierarchy and the spatial distribution of cities. The question is not whether urbanization is desirable—it is probably inevitable-but what form it should take.
EDUCATION AND POPULATION GROWTH*
There is considerable evidence from recent economic research that factors other than the amount of capital investment in the means of production or growth in the quantity of labor are of major importance in economic growth. Such growth requires much more than an accumulation of capital and an increase in the number of workers. New types of productive instruments have to be created, new occupations generated and learned in hew contexts and locations, new types of risks have to assumed, and new social and economic relationships have to be forged.
Hence, the development factors include: (a) improvement in the quality of labor through education and other means of skill acquisition, as well as better health and welfare; (b) more favorable conditions for the introduction of
*Scc the chanters in Vol. II of this study by Gavin W. Jones, T. Paul Schultz, and